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V4/chained compat tree

Overview

For legacy applications, FreeIPA maintains in the domain DIT a set of entries conforming AD schema. Those entries are kept in memory map and managed by Schema compat plugins. The in-memory maps are protected by a lock that acts basically like a backend lock. Those entries are not indexed so a search can hit a performance issue. In addition several deadlock scenario exist if to process a request we need to access pages in real domain entries.

It was decided

  • to move in-memory maps into real backend entries to benefit from indexing and avoid deadlock scenario.
  • to move the AD conforming entries into a dedicated and separated DS instance (running with AD schema): secondary instance
  • The mapping is no more running on the primary instance instead it runs in the separated DS instance


The AD dedicated instance contains only AD like entries. Regular (posix) FreeIPA entries are limited to the main FreeIPA instance.

In the rest of the document, AD instance will also be called secondary or RFC2307 or AD instance. The main FreeIPA instance will also be called primary or posix or main instance.

In the rest of the document entries on the primary instance are also called primary entries or original entries. The entries on the secondary instance are also called secondary entries or mapped entries or duplicated twin entries.

Design

Initial situation

A FreeIPA instance contains two main backends: UserRoot and ipaca.

ipaca contains the certificate information and is not impacted by this design.

containers

userRoot DIT has multiple containers: users, groups, hosts, computers, sudo rules, hbac rules... and a special container compat. All containers are stored in LDAP DB files on disk except compat that is stored in memory tables (aka maps). A user entry (under users container) is duplicated and transformed into a user entry under the compat container. It is the same for groups and computers.

GC slapi nis img current situation.png

The regular containers contain entries conforming posix schema. Those containers are replicated on all servers in a FreeIPA topology. The compat container contains AD like entries and conforms AD schema. The entries in that container are not replicated to the others servers, instead each server manage its own set of mapped entries.

Schema Compat container

The compat container stores entries into in-memory maps

The entries can be retrieved with LDAP search. LDAP search request can lookup the original entry (i.e. uid=my_user,cn=users,cn=accounts,dc=domain) as well as its twin (duplicate/transform) entry (i.e. uid=my_user,cn=users,cn=compat,dc=domain).

The mapped entries are provisioned (from on disk containers users, groups and computers) at server startup. Then a LDAP write operation that updates a user (or groups or computer) into the disk DB, is also processed by Schema Compat plugin (aka slapi-nis) that duplicate/transform the updated entries and stores the resulting entries into a 'in-memory' map. To do this transformation, Schema Compat plugin apply a Formating definition specific to type of entries (users, groups or computers) that is mapped

GC slapi nis img schema compat.png

Formating keyword: deref

A Formating definition contains a set format specifiers. The specifier schema-compat-entry-attribute describes with keywords how to create the values of the compat entries. The deref keyword allows to retrieve values from the entries in the DB.

In the example below, a new developer (dev1) is added to a group (engineering). The group cn=engineering,<groups> is updated. Schema compat catches the update and updates the compat group cn=engineering,<compat_groups>. Schema compat uses the groups formating definition in order to updates the attribute memberUid in the compat group. The memberUid requires to dereference the member value of the group cn=engineering,<groups>. It refers to user dev1. Schema compat does an internal search to retrieve that user. Then it adds the uid value of that user as value of memberUid. In short deref keyword requires lookup in users/groups/computer that are in the DB.

GC slapi nis img SC deref.png

Primary instance

Because of performance (no index) and robustness (deadlocks) concerns, the Freeipa DS instance is separated into two DS instances: primary and secondary.

The primary contains all FreeIPA posix entries

GC slapi nis img sec inst overview.png

Compat chained backend

The compat containers on the primary instance are chained to the secondary instance.

All operations are replayed on the secondary instance. Write operation will be rejected because compat backend on secondary is in read-only. (TBD should also the compat backend be in read-only on the primary instance ?)

Read operations are replayed on secondary instance. Authentication on secondary instance TBD. ACI evaluation is done locally (nsCheckLocalACI) on the primary instance because access control mostly rely on group membership and we do not want to provision groups/users on secondary instance.

Secondary instance

A secondary instance will run with RFC 2307 schema. This instance will store on disk DB entries (conforming RFC 2307 schema). These entries are duplicate/transformed from entries that are in the primary instance (posix schema). Only few containers entries (users, groups and computers) from the primary instance are stored in the secondary instance.


RFC2307 map plugin

The original entries, that are updated on the primary instance, are retrieved with a sync-repl lookup. There is one sync-repl instance per container (in the figure above only users container is showed). So on the secondary instance there will be at least 3 sync-repl instance (for users, groups and computers).

A sync-repl instance runs in a RFC2307 map plugin, so several RFC2307 map plugin will run with different config entries (similar to uiduniqueness plugin). The type of the plugin is TBD. At plugin startup, it spawn a dedicated thread that connects to the primary instance.

Authentication on the primary instance is TBD.

The plugin config entry contains the base search, filter and cookie of the sync repl. A possibility is to keep those info into a specific entry into the mapped container (like a RUV entry).

The config entry also contains the formating specifiers. The lookup entries are processed with the formating specifiers and then stored locally.

Sync_repl retrieves a full entry (not an update), so each time an primary entry is updated, the secondary entry is deleted and added. That means that secondary entries (for example in compat_users containers) are leafs. This limitation is to reduce the complexity of evaluating MODs of an entry. An updated primary entries, triggers a DEL and a ADD of its secondary entry.

Sync_repl is not synchronized with the LDAP update on the primary instance. That means the secondary entry will be updated after the update of the primary entry. If a client application updates a primary entry and then immediately does LDAP search on primary instance of the compat_user entry. The LDAP search will following the chained backend and retrieve the entry from the secondary instance. There is a possibility that this entry does not reflect the update done on the primary instance. Compare to current status where the updates are atomic, with a secondary instance updates of the primary and secondary entry are not longer atomic

RFC2307 map plugin spawn a dedicated thread that

  • connects/bind to the primary instance. If connection/authentication fails it iterates
  • It retrieves users_cookie from a specific entry under compat_users container. If there is a cookie it does a sync_repl refresh and persist with cookie. If there is no cookie it does a sync_repl refresh and persist without cookie.
  • from each retrieved entry, it applies the formatting.
  • when Sync Info intermediate message is received (end of refresh), it sets a flag that the compat_users container is initialized
  • Then the following retrieved entries are formatted and do (requires it is a leaf).
    • If the changetype is delete, it DEL the entry in the compat_users container
    • if the changetype is add or modify, then if the entry did not exist in the compat_user container it ADD the entry, else it DEL and ADD the entry
    • if the changetype is MODRDN, then it DEL the source entry and ADD the destination entry
  • Under the same transaction it updates the users_cookie that is kind of RUV

compat backend

The compat backend on the secondary instance is read-only. Internal updates to that backend will need the flag SLAPI_OP_FLAG_BYPASS_REFERRALS.

Formating keyword deref

The formating deref keyword is an expensive keyword. It was already an expensive keyword when Schema compat plugin was running on primary instance. It will also be expensive with the proposed design.

In the figure below, we can see the RFC2307 map plugin that reads the update of posix grp1. According to the formating definitions (dn: cn=groups,cn=rfc_map,cn=plugins,cn=config), it duplicates and transforms the original posix group into a AD group. To generate the memberUID value of the AD group, it needs to dereference the members of the original posix group. Those members are posix entries: user_1 and user_2.

In the current implementation, it is done with internal searches on a local backend.

With the new implementation, the secondary instance (AD instance) does not contain locally the posix entries. So the internal search will retrieve them with a chained suffix to the primary (posix) instance.


GC slapi nis img sec inst deref.png


Improving deref keyword (for example adding member to a large static group) is beyond the scope of this design.


This design is in progress and the following lines are not stable. It is just a set of ideas

Majors issues

  • updates of the primary and secondary entry are not longer atomic.
  • compat entries are leafs
  • The primary instance contains typical FreeIPA master information. This reflect posix entries, using a posix schema
  • The secondary instance runs with a AD schema
  • regular replication is not possible between primary and secondary
  • Secondary instance will contain Gobal Catalog entries that are pulled from primary instance using sync_repl. Source tree is TDB, target tree is a specify backend 'dc=global catalog'
  • Secondary instance will contain compat entries taken from 'dc=compat,<domain_suffix>' from the primary instance.
  • There is two options, fill it with plugins running on primary (but this would mean slapi-nis running on primary doing internal update on chained suffix rather than managing a in-memory map)
  • on secondary instance, compat can be read-only backend and rfc-map plugin should use the appropriate flag
  • provision the remote 'dc=compat,<domain_suffix>' with a sync_repl (prefered)
  • change the name 'primary/secondary' into posix/rfc2307 instance