Identity Management (IdM) needs change as an organization grows in size. For an example, I'll describe a fictional company, and take it from the smallest to largest stages. While, to some degree, the industry of this firm really doesn't matter, I am going to use a small import business started by a single individual and scale it up to a multinational corporation. As the organization grows in size, the technical needs will drive the scope and scale of the identity management solutions required.
Ms. N. Zappa has just come back from a masters degree program in Jakarta. While living in Indonesia, she established connections with several furniture producers, and she starts a small import/export business in the Boston area. She has contacts at a handful of stores already from previous experience. She moves back in with her folks, who have agreed that she can use a section of the garage for storage, and she outsources all technical issues to a small web services firm. They register the domain name ZappasImports.com for her, set up an account a large cloud provider who provide web and email services. Her information management needs are for tracking orders, suppliers, and customers, which she keeps in a set of spreadsheets that she backs up to the cloud on a nightly basis.
When there is just one person in Zappas, the IdM needs are purely between N Zappa and the cloud provider. Her Internet services contractor has set up an account with the Cloud provider. The Zappa account has two users associated with it: nzappa and the contractor. This authentication is done against the Cloud Providers Authentication Database.
The contractor sets up three applications for Zappas. A static web server, remote backups, and email. The email server is a managed service, and runs on the same email server as many of the other clients of the Cloud Provider. At this point, the Cloud provider is really just an Internet Service Provider. The website has a simple WebDAV interface and runs as a virtual host on shared web server. Remote backups are done via WebDAV. The Cloud provider manages all these services in order to scale up the number of customers it can handle without overloading its own infrastructure. Because the web applications are run on shared servers, they are responsive. If the overall load increases, the Cloud provider can scale up by allocating more virtual machines.
Contractor with multiple Clients
Zappas is not the only company the web services company manages. They have a portfolio of customers. The cloud deployment approach matches their development methods and skill set. They do not want to have a seperate account with the cloud provider for each of their clients. Instead, the user accounts are associated with the client accounts. In addition, the web services firm is itself a client of the cloud provider, with systems that are somewhat comparable to those that they are setting up for Zappas.
There are two potential next steps. One is that the company adds personel. The other is when Zappas wants to start tracking and authenticating people outside of her company. These are two fairly different directions. They can happen in either order. Lets look at the external issue first.
External Identity Management
After a few months of operations, she realizes that she is having a much lower rate of return customers than she anticipated. She wants to communicate better with the people that have bought from here before to encourage repeat business, as well as to gauge the relative degree of satisfaction her customers have had with their purchases.
Zappa's sets up a single external application, a customer order portal. This runs on a dedicated virtual machine, and uses a software package that the cloud provider has pre-canned. It uses an internal database, either PostgreSQL or MySQL with a table for user accounts. Authentication is done via Basic-Auth. The system is accessed via Web over SSL. This requires that the Web server have a publicly routed static IP address. The Cloud Provider runs a certificate authority, and issues a certificate for the web service to Zappa's Imports. The Customer database is pre-populated with email addresses from a spreadsheet. Passwords are set to expired, which allows the users to reset them using their email addresses as verification. She emails her customers about the system and they start using it.
She also starts a blog, to describe the process she goes through to find new furniture, to explain the history behind some of the more interesting designs, and to introduce people to the culture of Indonesia. Again, this starts off as a managed service by the Cloud service provider: a Worpress instance with another dedicated back-end database. At first she enables public commenting, but the high degree of spam dictates that she somehow authenticate the comments. Instead, she decides that the appropriate thing for her business is to limit comments to people that have either purchased or are thinking of purchasing furniture from her. She could choose to use OpenID or a different Web Single Sign on solution, but that provides her no way to cross reference posts with her customer database. She wants to integrate the two systems. She also is not really happy with the order tracking system, and thinks she might want to switch to a different software package. While all three software packages she has been looking at provide embedded Identity management, they are all incompatible with one another. However, all of them support external authentication. She decides to extract the IdM out into a dedicated system in order to federate her customer focused applications more easily.
Internal Identity Management
Her business grows and she gets an office manager. She rents space at a local warehouse and a small office nearby. They set up accounts with a handful of delivery companies and need to be able to integrate the tracking of packages. The international nature of the business dictates that they get an account that specializes in international trade. Zappas has sufficient business going direct to end consumers that they set up a web catalog and order placement system. This dictates that they have a content management system, and that they establish a relationship with professional photographers in the remote countries that can supply their catalog with high quality images. They have a handful of contractors on retainer that can deliver and assemble some of the more complex pieces. The organization grows a little further. The company is producing enough revenue that she has a full time sales manager. During the busy season, she also hires seasonal help.
When Zappas hires her first employee, she needs to set up a new email account. This is likely done in the Cloud provider's IdM system. She also needs to add the new employees desktop to the back up system. While the new employee is nominally an office manager, in practical terms she is helping with all aspects of the business, which means she needs to be able to perform administrative activities on the systems hosted in the cloud. The IdM solution they've chose supports this by adding the user to a group specific to each of the applications.
"There is nothing more practical than a good theory." --Kurt Lewin
There are patterns that show up in all implementations of IdM systems. Recognizing them will help in implementation of future systems.
Her organization may look simple, but Zappa's Imports has most of the identity management needs of a large organization. She has distinct external contacts that she needs to segregate from each other. Each has a different set of permissible activities based on role. , but there are certain activities that the partners can do that the the office manager can't. With the addition of the sales manager the organization has grown to the point that she can (and must) delegate management responsibilities: this is the critical point for an identity management system. The sales manager needs to be able to hire a temporary worker, give that worker limited access, and then revoke it after the busy period. Perhaps the temp can take orders, but is not allowed to handle returns. In addition, the sales manager needs to be able to schedule and track a contractor that is heading to a customer site to do an assembly.
The IdM system manages three types of relationships. First, it manages the relationship between The cloud provider and Zappa's imports. Second, it manages relationships between the Zappa's imports employees. Finally, it manages the relationships between Zappa's Imports and the people that do business with Zappa's. From Zappa's perspective, adding a new application and adding an additional employee are related tasks. At first, both are handled by Ms. Zappa. By the end, are performed by employees who have been delegated the authority to perform these tasks.
Probably the largest question in cloud IdM integration is who owns the information. The Zappas customer list and suppliers list are probably the most valuable assets of the company. If the cloud provider wants to maintain its own customers, they need to provide sufficient reason to trust their Id solution. On the other hand, they need to protect their own assets. In their organization, Ms. Zappa is a client, and she can add and remove servers based on her contract and quality of service agreement with the cloud provider. As the organization grows, this is certainly one of the actions she will want to delegate to the CTO, who will later delegate it to the Operations Manager when Zappa's Imports grows to the size to hire one.
Avoiding Lock In
Although companies like Zappa's are not going to be jumping from one cloud provider to another each week, they still want to avoid vendor lock in. Zappa's applications should have no dependencies on elements internal to the cloud provider that cannot be redirected to a different cloud provider. This is going to be more and more important as the company scales up. A Cloud provider can prove to be a poor fit for an organization for multiple reasons, and not all of those can be foreseen upfront. In the case of Zappa's, technology is an enabler for business, but it is not the company's forte. By contracting with a decent internet services firm, she has offloaded some of the decisions. She shouldn't be locked in indefinitely to a technology decision made today that is secondary to the core of the business.
It is helpful to think of the federation of Identity Management systems as single solutions, with carefully specified integration points between the component parts. By having two systems, you firewall off one segment of your users from another. However, it is worth noting that there are a couple issues this does not address. If there are two systems, and one is deemed canonical, and information is pushed from one to the other, they are acting as a single system, and thus the potential for elevation of privileges is still there.
A few years down the road, Zappa's is doing well, and has grown to a middle sized companies. N Zappa maintains her role as CEO and President, but is completely out of the software side of the company. Dealing with the relationships essential to her business must be supported by technology, not derailed by the management of technology. Zappa's has all of the major subdivisions that one would expect to see in a middle sized company. Marketing and Sales are now distinct operations. Operations has a full time call center as well as full time employees for deliveries that require assembly. IT has also grown to support the needs of the organization. On the supply side, several employees have been hired in remote offices to handle the purchasing in several countries. The full time Human Resources manager has contracted to a small number of staffing firms for filling the variations the yearly cycle.
The information systems are now a mix of in-house, application service provider, and cloud hosted applications. Zappa's works mainly with two cloud providers that offer differentiated offerings due to geographic location and international issues. Applications for supply, foreign tax and travel, and shipping are hosted in a company in Jakarta. The eCommerce web site and partner Business-to-Business portal is hosted stateside. Zappa's has consolidated IdM in-house, and shares a subset of its user database with the various technology partners.
The load on the cloud providers systems has scaled up with the company. When orders were measured in single-digits per day, billing was likely at a flat rate. At scale, the daily variations and fluctuation are significant. Auditing the systems becomes a requirement for legal and financial reasons. Different portions of Zappa's have different budgets, and pay for the usage of the cloud out of separate accounts.
For authentication of employees, Zappa's has moved from a userid/password model to a cryptographically secure system, based on technologies like Kerberos, hardware tokens, smart-cards and so forth. Different systems require the ability to accept different authentication mechanisms: the corporate blog needs a HW token in order to post an article, but allow OpenID authentication for a customer to post a follow up comment. Some of the suppliers and partners have advanced technologically as well, and have their own authentication systems that they want to use when performing business with Zappa's. The wide number of web sites in use have dictated a single sign on solution that needs to span across the public internet, and that works around the fact that some of the sites only allow network traffic on ports 443 and 80.
By this point, a standardized mechanism for managing the IdM across all of these systems has become essential. Adding in a new application cannot force changes to the schema. Each additional application cannot silo its own user database. Centralized management is a must; replication to remote sites must be rapid. Elevation of privileges is a major risk and the IdM must have rock solid protections built in against it.
The cloud provider is an integral partner to Zappas. It has to provide seamless integration of Identity Management. Trust and audit are two sides of the same issue: Zappas needs to know what is going on at the Cloud provider. Access to the systems running as virtual machines in the cloud has to be tightly managed. At the same time, the cloud provider finds it seld in the same relationship with many other companies, some of which are competitors to Zappos. For legal and financial reasons, the cloud providers needs to provide segregation between its clients. The number of clients it is managing means that the system has to work completely automated.
This narrative has attempted to put the scale and scope of identity management issues in a cloud deployment into to perspective. The fictional company matches the needs of many real companies, as well as many non-corporate entities. The scope of the identity management solutions vary with the scope of the problem or number of problems that they attempt to solve. As our fictional company grew, its needs changed, as did the corresponding Identity Management Solution. The ability to tune the software packages that your company uses will help determine how quickly the company can react to new business opportunities or deal with set backs. A larger organization has more contact points, more needs, and thus cannot as easily rewrite the configuration of their applications to deal with a different IdM solution.