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ConfiguringUnixClients

Introduction

The IPA team lacks expertise on configuring non-Linux systems. The following instructions worked at one time to provide a basic roadmap on how to configure different operating systems to authenticate against an IPA server. For additional information and support we suggest contacting the operating system vendor.

Solaris 8/9/10

Configuring Client Authentication

  1. Apply the latest kernel and LDAP patches.
    1. For Solaris8: kernel patch + 108993. The latest version (version 55) can be downloaded by entering 108993 at http://sunsolve.sun.com/pub-cgi/show.pl?target=patches/patch-access.
    2. For Solaris 9, the required patch is 112960 (version 37)
    3. For Solaris 10, the required patch is 119073-3.
  2. Add the following files to the /var/ldap directory:
    1. /var/ldap/ldap_client_file: The important parameters in this file are the ldapservers and the name of the client profile. At startup, the ldapclient extracts the profile from the server.
    2. /var/ldap/ldap_client_cred: These are the proxy settings. You can encrypt the password in the file by using an online web tool such as http://jpirr.nic.ad.jp/crypt_gen_web.html
Sample files are available here. These files need to be configured specifically for each client.
  1. Ensure that the above files have 0400 permissions.
  2. Configure nsswitch.conf. A sample file is provided here. In this file, passwd, group and automounts are set to be read from ldap.
  3. Set the Solaris NIS domain name:
    1. echo “example.com” > /etc/defaultdomain
    2. domainname `cat /etc/defaultdomain`
  4. Configure pam.conf. Solaris 10 uses the same pam.conf file as Solaris 8 and 9, except that certain lines for pam_unix_cred.so.1 have been uncommented. Sample files are provided here.
  5. Restart the ldap_cachemgr and ncsd.

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups.

The SUNWtlsu package is needed to provide /usr/sfw/bin/certutil.

To set up TLS on the clients:

1. Copy the cert7.db, key3.db and secmod.db databases to the /var/ldap directory. Make sure these files have permissions 0444.

2. Change the profile reference in /var/ldap/ldap_client_file to the correct TLS profile. The TLS profile should have:

authenticationMethod: tls:simple
serviceAuthenticationMethod:pam_ldap:tls:simple

3. Restart the client:

/usr/lib/ldap/ldap_cachemgr -K
mv /var/ldap/cachemgr.log /var/ldap/cachemgr.log.old
/usr/lib/ldap/ldap_cachemgr
/etc/init.d/nscd stop
/etc/init.d/nscd start

Additional Resources

freeipa-users mailing list threads

Documentation bugs

Solaris 6/7

Building nss_ldap, OpenLDAP, and pam_ldap

Solaris 6 does not have a native LDAP client. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a solution using nss_ldap.so. The following steps describe how to compile nss_ldap.so on a Solaris 6 machine. This module is binary compatible with Solaris 7.

1. Download and install the following packages from http://sunfreeware.com/indexsparc26.html:

openssl.0.9.8a.SPARC.Solaris.2.6.pkg.tgz
make-3.80-sol26-sparc-local.gz
gzip-1.3.5-sol26-sparc-local
gcc-3.4.2-sol26-sparc-local

pkgadd -d gzip-1.3.5-sol26-sparc-local
pkgadd -d gcc-3.4.2-sol26-sparc-local
gunzip make-3.80-sol26-sparc-local.gz
pkgadd -d make-3.80-sol26-sparc-local
gunzip openssl.0.9.8a.SPARC.Solaris.2.6.pkg.tgz |tar -xvf -pkgadd -d. openssl

There will be messages about conflicting files. Ignore them and proceed with the installation.

2. Download openldap-stable-20060127.tar from the openldap site, and extract as follows:

tar -xvf openldap-stable-20060127.tar
cd openldap-2.3.19

3. Compile openldap:

./configure --prefix=/opt/ldap --enable-syslog --disable-slapd -with-tls CC=/usr/local/bin/gcc
make depends
make
make install

4. Download pam_ldap from the padl site, and configure as follows:

tar -xvf pam_ldap.tar
cd pam_ldap-180
./configure --prefix=/opt/ldap –with-ldap-dir=/opt/ldap

5. Modify the Makefile and add -L/usr/local/lib to the LD_FLAGS, and then run make and make install:

pam_ldap_so_LDFLAGS = -B dynamic -M $(srcdir)/exports.solaris -G -B group -lc\ -L/opt/ldap/lib -L/usr/local/lib -R/opt/ldap/lib

make
make install

make[1]: Entering directory `/export/pam_ldap-180'
/bin/sh ./mkinstalldirs /opt/ldap/lib/security
mkdir /opt/ldap/lib/security
./install-sh -c  -o root -g root pam_ldap.so
/opt/ldap/lib/security/pam_ldap.so.1
(cd /opt/ldap/lib/security; rm -f pam_ldap.so; ln -s pam_ldap.so.1
pam_ldap.so)
make  install-man5
make[2]: Entering directory `/export/pam_ldap-180'
/bin/sh ./mkinstalldirs /opt/ldap/man/man5
 ./install-sh -c -m 644 ./pam_ldap.5 /opt/ldap/man/man5/pam_ldap.5
make[2]: Leaving directory `/export/pam_ldap-180'
make[1]: Leaving directory `/export/pam_ldap-180'

6. Download nss_ldap from the padl.com site, and extract as follows:

tar -xvf nss_ldap.tar
cd nss_ldap-248

7. Compile nss_ldap

./configure --prefix=/opt/ldap --with-ldap-dir=/opt/ldap --enable-rfc2307bis
/usr/local/bin/make
/usr/local/bin/make install

Installing pam_ldap and nss_ldap

This procedure describes how to install the nss_ldap and pam_ldap binaries on Solaris 6 and Solaris 7. The binaries have been delivered as a tar file that extract into /opt/ldap.

1. Copy the tar file to the root directory and untar.

cp nss_ldap_solaris_6_7.tar /; tar -xvf nss_ldap_compiled.tar

2. Install openssl 0.9.8 on the system. You may get messages about conflicting files; ignore these and continue with the installation.

3. Copy /opt/ldap/lib/security/pam_ldap.so to /usr/lib/security/pam_ldap.so.

4. Create an appropriate symlink as follows:

cd  /opt/ldap/lib/security; ln -s pam_ldap.so ./pam_ldap.so.1

5. For Solaris 7, save the version of pam_unix.so, and copy over the Solaris 6 version from /opt/ldap/lib/security/pam_unix.so.

cp /usr/lib/security/pam_unix.so /usr/lib/security/pam_unix.so.sol7
cp /opt/ldap/lib/security/pam_unix.so  /usr/lib/security/pam_unix.so

6. Check if the pam module can be loaded. That is, see if the dynamic linker can resolve all the dependencies by running ldd.

ldd /usr/lib/security/pam_ldap.so

7. Check that all the libraries can be found. The libraries under /usr/local/lib may not be found. To put them in the search path, create symbolic links. You may have to make the following links:

libssl.so.0.9.8 =>       /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8
libcrypto.so.0.9.8 =>    /usr/lib/libcrypto.so.0.9.8
libgcc_s.so.1 =>         /usr/lib/libgcc_s.so.1

For example: ln -s /usr/local/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8 /usr/lib/libssl.so.0.9.8

For Solaris 7, the openssl libraries can be found in the /usr/local/lib/ssl directory.

8. Copy nss_ldap from /opt/ldap/lib/nss_ldap.so to /usr/lib/nss_ldap.so and then create the following link:

ln -s /usr/lib/nss_ldap.so /usr/lib/nss_ldap.so.1

9. Check if all dynamic libraries are resolved, as follows:

ldd /usr/lib/nss_ldap.so

10. Copy over nsswitch.conf and pam.conf (refer to Client Configuration files). These files are same as the ones used for Solaris 8+.

Configuring Client Authentication

The following files need to be configured correctly. Sample files are provided in the client directories:

  • /etc/ldap.conf
  • /etc/pam.conf
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups.

Because nss_ldap and pam_ldap have been compiled with TLS, it is possible to do authentication with these clients using TLS. Due to time constraints, this implementation is untested.

HP-UX 11.0

The HP-UX clients are configured to read a profile from the Directory Server. While this profile is of the same object class as that used by the Solaris servers, its attributes have slightly different content and usage. It is therefore necessary to create a separate profile for HP-UX machines. This profile is automatically created when the first HP-UX client on a domain is created. Subsequent machines on that domain are configured by copying over the relevant configuration files.

Example profiles are provided here.

Note: The client uses a proxy user to connect to the Directory Server. In this case, the proxy user is uid=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=example,dc=com. This user needs to exist on the Directory Server.

Configuring Client Authentication

To create a new profile: Ensure that all clients have the following software installed:

The following steps are required to complete the installation of the first HP-UX 11.0 client. Subsequent clients can (and should) be configured by copying over the relevant files.

1. Create the /etc/ldap.conf file if it does not exist.

2. Configure a proxy user on the client. This user must exist on the Directory Server.

cd /opt/ldapux/config
./ldap_proxy_config -i uid=proxyagent,ou=profile,dc=example,dc=com redhat123

3. Run the setup program /opt/ldapux/config/setup. Detailed, step-by-step instructions for this program are provided in the HP-UX Client Configuration Guide on p. 30. The prompts are self-explanatory and all schema elements should already have been installed on the Directory Server. Note that the option to select SSL will only be available if the cert7.db and key3.db files already exist on the system. See the next section for details.

4. When prompted to accept the default options, select “no”. Then, enter the options for the proxy user. Also, enter 0 for the ProfileTTL. Profile refreshes will be configured manually as a cron job.

5. At the prompt, “Do you want to remap RFC2307 attributes?”, specify “No.”

6. At the prompt, “Do you want to specify custom search descriptors?”, specify “No.”

7. Select the option to restart the LDAPUX client services. The profile is written to /etc/opt/ldadux/ldap_client_file, as well as to the Directory Server. In addition, the proxy user's credentials are written to the /etc/opt/ldapux/cred file.

8. Modify pam.conf and nsswitch.conf. Sample files are provided here.

9. Verify the configuration by running the following commands:

pwget -n username
grget -n groupname
nsquery passwd username ldap

10. Set up a cron job to periodically refresh the profile. Instructions on how to do this are in the HP-UX Client Configuration Guide on p.65.

To configure further clients with the same profile:

1. Copy the following files to the new server:

/etc/opt/ldapux/pcred
/etc/opt/ldapux/ldapux_client.conf
/etc/pam.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/opt/ldapux/key3.db (if SSL is enabled)
/etc/opt/ldapux/cert7.db (if SSL is enabled)

2. Make sure the file permissions are the same as the first server.

3. Download the profile:

/opt/ldapux/config/get_profile_entry -s nss

4. Configure the proxy user:

/opt/ldapux/config/ldap_proxy_config

5. Configure the cron job to refresh the profile.

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups.

To set up TLS on the clients:

1. Copy the cert7.db and key3.db files into /etc/opt/ldapux. The following instructions (steps 2 and 3) describe how to generate the cert7.db files using certutil (which is actually delivered in /opt/ldapux/contrib/bin/certutil). For subsequent boxes, it is necessary only to copy the generated cert7.db and key3.db files to /etc/opt/ldapux.

2. To create the cert, change directory to /etc/opt/ldapux. Create a new database as follows:

/opt/ldapux/contrib/bin/certutil -N -d /etc/opt/ldapux

This generates empty cert7.db and key3.db databases.

3. Install the cacert into the cert7.db and key3.db databases from the cacert.asc file (previously exported from ldap01.example.com using certutil according to the instructions in Appendix A).

/opt/ldapux/contrib/bin/certutil -A -n ldap08-ca-cert -t "C,," -d /etc/opt/ldapux -a -i /etc/opt/ldapux/cacert.asc

4. Once the cert7.db and key3.db files are in place in /etc/opt/ldapux, run the setup program “/opt/ldapux/config/setup” as described above, and select SSL/Simple. This option will not show up if the db files are not in /etc/opt/ldapux. This generates a new profile for TLS/Simple access on the server.

cn=hpux_11.0_tls,ou=profile,dc=example,dc=com

HP-UX 11i v.1 and 2

No special setup is required for HP-UX 11i. As with HP-UX11.0, the client retrieves a profile from the Directory Server. The profile used is almost the same as the HP-UX 11.0. The only difference is that the automount services is LDAP-enabled in HP-UX-11i, and is therefore configured in the HP-UX 11i client profile.

Configuring Client Authentication

1. Download the LDAP-UX Integration software version B.04.00.03 from the following URL: https://h20293.www2.hp.com/portal/swdepot/try.do?productNumber=J4269AA

2. The configuration steps for HP-UX11i are identical to those for 11.0 except for step 6 (search descriptor configuration). For this step, specify “yes” at the prompt, “Do you want to specify custom search descriptors?” The only search descriptor that is required to be specified is the one for automounts. Enter the following search descriptor for automounts:

searchBase: dc=example,dc=com
searchScope: sub
searchFilter: (objectclass=automount)

3. Create the /etc/ldap.conf file if it does not exist.

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups.

To set up TLS on the clients:

1. Obtain the cert8.db and key.db for the CAcert. This can be obtained from the CA by following the steps on p.42 of the HP-UX Client Setup Guide, or using certutil as described on p.43. The cert8.db and key.db tested at example were obtained from Mozilla as described on p.43.

2. Copy key.db and cert8.db into /etc/opt/ldapux

3. Run the client setup program /opt/ldapux/config/setup as described above. This only needs to be done for the first client. Be sure to specify SSL and SSL/simple authentication.

At example, running the setup program resulted in the following profile being created:

cn=ldapuxprofile-tls,ou=profile,dc=example,dc=com

4. For subsequent clients, the following files need to be copied into /etc/opt/ldapux:

  • cert8.db
  • ldapux_client.conf
  • key3.db
  • pcred

The simple instructions on how to set up the machine using these files are detailed on p.63 of the HP-UX Client Configuration Guide.

AIX 5.1

Building nss_ldap

AIX 5.1 does not deliver a native LDAP client. For these clients, the nss_ldap module from padl.com must be compiled and installed.

To build nss_ldap:

1. Install the following install package: bos.adt.syscalls

2. Install the following rpms from the IBM toolkit:

  • libgcc-3.3.2-5
  • gcc-3.3.2-5
  • openldap-2.0.21-3
  • openldap-devel-2.0.21-3

3. Obtain and install the nss_ldap_226 source RPM from the Red Hat source rpms. At the time this compilation was done, the latest version available from padl.com was not stable.

4. Untar the nss_ldap source tarball and configure using the following command:

LDFLAGS="-L/opt/freeware/lib" LIBS=-lc \
		CPPFLAGS="-I/opt/freeware/include  -D_LINUX_SOURCE_COMPAT 
		-DPAM_EXTERN=" ./configure --with-ldap-lib=openldap 
		--with-ldap-conf-file=/etc/pam_ldap.conf –enable-ssl

5. Modify the following lines in the Makefile:

nss_ldap_so_LDFLAGS = -bM:SRE -bnoentry -bE:$(srcdir)/exports.aix -brtl -lc
		 -L/opt/freeware/lib
NSS_LDAP_LDFLAGS = -bM:SRE -enss_ldap_initialize -brtl -lc -L/opt/freeware/lib

6. Run gmake

We have configured the compilation to use the /etc/pam_ldap.conf configuration file, because IBM SecureWay uses /etc/pam.conf. The compilation should have created the following files:

  • nss_ldap.so
  • NSS_LDAP
  • nsswitch.ldap
  • ldap.conf

7. Rename ldap.conf to pam_ldap.conf

These are the files that need to be installed on each client.

Installing and Configuring nss_ldap

1. The compiled NSS_LDAP module has been delivered as a tarball. Extract the tarball.

2. Copy nss_ldap.so to /usr/lib/netsvc/dynload/nss_ldap.so. Create the directory if it does not exist.

3. Copy NSS_LDAP to /usr/lib/security.

4. Make sure the two files have executable permissions.

5. If irs.conf exists, modify it to use nss_ldap (as appropriate). Create this file if it does not exist. A sample file is given below:

hosts dns continue
hosts nis continue
hosts local
services nss_ldap continue
services nis continue
services local
networks dns continue
networks nss_ldap continue
networks nis continue
networks local
netgroup nss_ldap continue
netgroup nis continue
netgroup local
protocols nss_ldap continue
protocols nis continue
protocols local

6. Add the following stanza to /lib/security/methods.cfg:

LDAP:
    program = /usr/lib/security/NSS_LDAP

7. Comment out any references to LDAP, because these are for the IBM SecureWay product.

8. Edit /etc/security/user. Modify the "SYSTEM" attribute of the "default" entry to "compat OR LDAP"

9. Modify ldap.conf to add the server name and other attributes. A sample ldap.conf is provided in the Appendix. Copy this file to /etc/pam_ldap.conf

10. Modify /etc/nsswitch.conf to add ldap as appropriate.

Configuring Client TLS

Because nss_ldap has been compiled with SSL and TLS support, it is likely the following steps result in a working TLS enabled system. Due to time constraints, these steps are untested.

The following steps? Nothing provided here.

AIX 5.2

Configuring Client Authentication

1. Client authentication is performed using IBM's native LDAP client. Client configuration is performed using the mksecldap command, as follows:

mksecldap -c -h ldap03.example.com -a "cn=Directory Manager” \ 
	    -p mysecret -d "dc=example,dc=com" -u NONE

2. The mksecldap command modifies the /etc/security/ldap/ldap.cfg configuration file based on the mappings it was able to find in the Directory Server. These mappings are likely to be incorrect, however, and should be modified to reflect the correct information as in the sample below. Full configuration files are found in the Appendix.

# Base DN where the user and group data are stored in the LDAP server.
# e.g., if user foo's DN is: username=foo,ou=aixuser,cn=aixsecdb
# then the user base DN is: ou=aixuser,cn=aixsecdb
userbasedn:dc=example,dc=com
groupbasedn:dc=example,dc=com 
idbasedn:dc=example,dc=com 
hostbasedn:dc=example,dc=com 
servicebasedn:ou=services,dc=example,dc=com 
protocolbasedn:ou=protocols,dc=example,dc=com
networkbasedn:ou=networks,dc=example,dc=com
netgroupbasedn:dc=example,dc=com 
rpcbasedn:ou=rpc,dc=example,dc=com

3. If NIS maps are present, the mksecldap command also modifies the /etc/irs.conf file. Make sure that the information in this file is correct. An example is shown below.

hosts dns continue
hosts nis continue
hosts local
services nis_ldap continue
services nis continue
services local
networks nis_ldap continue
networks dns continue
networks nis continue
networks local
netgroup nis_ldap continue
netgroup nis continue
netgroup local
protocols nis_ldap continue
protocols nis continue
protocols local

4. If NIS maps are present, the mksecldap command modifies the /etc/netsvc.conf file. Make sure these settings are correct, as follows:

hosts = nis_ldap, bind, nis, local

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups. It is possible to set up TLS for AIX 5.2. A full set of instructions will be provided at a later date.

AIX 5.3

Configuring Client Authentication

Use the same configuration as for AIX 5.2.

Configuring Client TLS

The SSL/TLS settings are only required if you want to use SSL between the clients and the server when performing operations such as account lookups.

To set up TLS on the clients:

1. Install the GSK kit. You should have the following filesets installed:

  • gskak.rte 6.0.5.41 C F AIX Certificate and SSL Base
  • gsksa.rte 7.0.3.3 C F AIX Certificate and SSL Base
  • gskta.rte 7.0.3.3 C F AIX Certificate and SSL Base

2. Install the ldap.max_crypto_client filesets. These are found on the expansion pack CD:

  • ldap.max_crypto_client.adt
  • ldap.max_crypto_client.rte

3.Create the key DB:

gsk7cmd -keydb -create -db key.kdb -pw redhat123 -type cms

4. Copy over the DER binary CA Cert file. This is obtained by running the following commands on the ldap01 server:

cd /opt/redhat-ds/alias
 ../shared/bin/certutil -L -d . -P slapd-ldap01- -n "Certificate Manager" \
-r > cacert.der

5. Install the CA cert and make it trusted:

gsk7cmd -cert -add -db /usr/ldap/key.kdb -pw redhat123  -label "ldap08 CA Cert" -trust enable -format binary -file cacert.der

6. Now configure the ldap client:

mksecldap -c -h ldap01.example.com -a "cn=Directory Manager" \
-p redhat123 -k /usr/ldap/key.kdb -w redhat123 -d "dc=example,dc=com"

7. Modify the userbasedn, groupbasedn etc., in /etc/security/ldap/ldap.conf as appropriate.

8. Restart the ldap client:

stop-secldapclntd
flush-secldapclntd
start-secldapclntd

AIX Sudo

Sudo on AIX can be configured to retrieve its rules from the IPA server the same way Linux clients do, although it needs a little more effort to get it working. For further details on how to setup this functionality on AIX see: SUDO Integration for AIX.

AIX : Enabling password change on client

To enable users to change their password through the AIX Client, it's very simple.

1. Edit the /etc/security/ldap/ldap.cfg

2. Change the value of authtype parameter from unix_auth to ldap_auth

Example:

root@localhost - PROD# grep authtype /etc/security/ldap/ldap.cfg
#authtype:unix_auth
authtype:ldap_auth
root@localhost- PROD#

3. Restart LDAP client, and try to change a user password.

root@localhost - PROD# stop-secldapclntd && sleep 3 && start-secldapclntd
The secldapclntd daemon terminated successfully.
Starting the secldapclntd daemon.
The secldapclntd daemon started successfully.
root@localhost - PROD#


Client Configuration Files

Sample Profiles

Solaris

HP-UX