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V4/Sub-CAs

Name: V4/Sub-CAs
Ticket: #4559
Target version: 4.4.0
Author: Ftweedal
Incomplete.png Pending review
Last updated: 2016-08-5 by Mkosek

Overview

FreeIPA's usefulness and appeal as a PKI is currently limited by the fact that there is a single X.509 security domain. Any certificate issued by FreeIPA is signed by the single authority, regardless of purpose.

FreeIPA requires a mechanism to issues certificates with different certification chains, so that certificates issues for some particular use (e.g. Puppet, VPN authentication, DNP3) can be regarded as invalid for other uses.

Dogtag's lightweight sub-CAs feature will provide the foundation for supporting multiple sub-CAs in FreeIPA. This feature will provide:

  • an API for creating and administering sub-CAs within a CA subsystem instance;
  • an augmented certificate request API for directing certificate requests to a particular CA or sub-CA within the instance.

FreeIPA will use these APIs to provide facilities for the creation and administration of sub-CAs, and the issuance of certificates from those CAs.

Use Cases

User certificates

There are many use cases for issuing certificates to user entities/principals from a sub-CA. The sub-CA acts as a "scope" indicating a particular intent or authorization for certificates issued by the sub-CA, and the sub-CA's signing certificate can be used to validate certificates issued in that scope (rejecting others). Some of these use cases are detailed below.

VPN authentication

A FreeIPA-based tool could be implemented to request short-lived user certificates for the purpose of VPN authentication. It would be inappropriate to accept as valid any client certificate issued by the host CA, so a sub-CA specifically for VPN authentication should be created for this purpose. The certificate-issuing tool would direct certificates signing requests to the VPN sub-CA.

A CLI command could be issued to retrieve the VPN CA's signing certificate, and/or register it in a local security database, and the user will configure the VPN server to use that CA certificate for client certificate verification.

Puppet

A blog post about using FreeIPA as an external Puppet PKI comments that:

On the downside, there is the issue of security. FreeIPA out of the box only supports a single toplevel CA, which means that all your certificates (IPA host certs, puppet certs, Website certs, etc.) are all in a single security domain - there's no built-in way to restrict this access to puppet. Users can't invent certs, of course, but any cert with the right hostname can be used to authenticate to puppet, because they share the same trust hierarchy.

The proposed feature will remove this shortcoming of FreeIPA (which applies not only to Puppet but in many situations.)

Default sub-CAs for host, service and user certificates

FreeIPA user Baptiste Agasse requested having separate domains for host and user certificates by default:

Hosts in FreeIPA can have an X.509 certificate for the host principal; you don't have to create any service on the host to request this certificate. If the security domains land in FreeIPA, it would be nice to have some default security domains, like one that sign hosts certificates by default, and why not another that sign user certificates by default.

This use case is not directly addressed by this design but because this design makes it possible to do what was suggested, it is included for completeness.

Design

Terminology

sub-CA
A lightweight sub-CA in the Dogtag CA instance, and its representation in FreeIPA.
lightweight CA
A lightweight CA in the Dogtag CA instance. This terminology is sometimes used where the topic applies to all lightweight CAs, which in the future may include CAs that are not chained to the IPA CA.
top-level CA or host CA
The top-level CA in the Dogtag CA subsystem, as distinct from any of its sub-CAs. In the FreeIPA context, this is sometimes called the IPA CA. It may or may not be a self-signed CA.
FreeIPA-managed CA
A CA or sub-CA that was created by or via FreeIPA and has an associated object in the FreeIPA directory, as distinct from a CA existing in Dogtag of which FreeIPA has no knowledge.

High-level design considerations

Nested sub-CAs

Nested sub-CAs (that is, more than a single level of sub-CAs beneath the primary CA in a Dogtag instance) are not an initial requirement, however, the schema and other aspects of the FreeIPA feature should take into account the possibility of nested sub-CAs as a future requirement.

Externally signed and self-signed lightweight CAs

Initially all sub-CAs will be children of the host CA, but the sub-CAs feature should be designed for the possible future requirement of supporting multiple independent trust chains. Additional work will be required in Dogtag to support these use cases.

Externally signed lightweight CAs

We would support partial creation of the CA to generate the key in the NSSDB and yield a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) for submission to the external CA. The signed certificate would then be imported to complete the process.

Alternatively, we could simply accept a certificate and private signing key (e.g. in PKCS #12 format). This approach is not mutually exclusive with the other - they can both be supported.

The "upstream" root certificate and intermediate CA certificates would be stored in LDAP for distribution to clients, with the IPA CA having an ipaKeyTrust value of trusted (see CA certificate renewal).

Self-signed lightweight CAs

In this case, FreeIPA causes Dogtag to generate a new self-signed (root) CA. The CA certificate would be stored in LDAP for distribution to clients, having an ipaKeyTrust value of trusted.

CA discovery

Lightweight CAs created directly in Dogtag will not be discovered by FreeIPA. FreeIPA-managed and non-FreeIPA-managed CAs can coexist in Dogtag but FreeIPA will not be aware of CAs it did not create (other than the host authority).

ca plugin

Lightweight CAs, in addition to having a representation within the Dogtag deployment, have a representation in the FreeIPA directory, for several reasons:

  • Provides a layer of indirection that can include user-friendly names and descriptions for the CA.
  • Allows the "friendly name" to be changed in FreeIPA without changing anything in Dogtag.
  • Provides the opportunity to extend the object with additional metadata that pertains only to FreeIPA, as deemed important.
  • Provides an object that can be referenced in CA ACLs.

The ca plugin defines these objects and the CRUD commands for finding, creating, modifying and deleting lightweight CAs.

The ca plugin also provides an entry for the host authority, for consistency and to allow CA ACLs to explicitly reference the IPA CA. The entry for the host authority is automatically added on installation or upgrade.

Certificate parameters

Keygen parameters

Initially, 2048-bit RSA keys shall be supported. Later work will implement the ability to specify key sizes and types when creating lightweight CAs.

Subject Distinguished Name

The Subject DN is user-specified and used as-is.

Validity

The default validity period of the Dogtag caCAcert profile shall be used (10 years).

Future work could enable the use of different profiles for lightweight CA creation and/or allow direct control of the validity period.

Schema

CA objects shall be stored in the container cn=cas,cn=ca,$SUFFIX and shall have the object classes ipaCa (defined below). They shall be distinguished by cn.

objectClasses: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.21.2.3
  NAME 'ipaCa'
  SUP top STRUCTURAL
  MUST ( cn $ ipaCaId $ ipaCaSubjectDN $ ipaCaIssuerDN )
  MAY description
  X-ORIGIN 'IPA v4.4 Lightweight CAs' )

The ipaCaId attribute shall store the Dogtag Authority ID of a lightweight CA:

attributeTypes: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.21.1.6
  NAME 'ipaCaId' DESC 'Dogtag Authority ID'
  EQUALITY caseIgnoreMatch
  ORDERING caseIgnoreOrderingMatch
  SUBSTR caseIgnoreSubstringsMatch
  SYNTAX 1.3.6.1.4.1.1466.115.121.1.15
  X-ORIGIN 'IPA v4.4 Lightweight CAs' )

The ipaCaIssuerDN attribute shall store the issuer DN of the CA:

attributeTypes: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.21.1.7
  NAME 'ipaCaIssuerDN' DESC 'Issuer Distinguished Name'
  SUP distinguishedName
  X-ORIGIN 'IPA v4.4 Lightweight CAs' )

The ipaCaSubjectDN attribute shall store the subject DN of the CA:

attributeTypes: (2.16.840.1.113730.3.8.21.1.8
  NAME 'ipaCaSubjectDN' DESC 'Subject Distinguished Name'
  SUP distinguishedName
  X-ORIGIN 'IPA v4.4 Lightweight CAs' )

The ipaCaId, ipaCaIssuerDN and ipaCaSubjectDN attributes shall be immutable.

Permissions

The following new permissions will be added. Unless stated otherwise, permissions are initially granted to the CA Administrator role.

System: Read CAs
All principals may search lightweight CAs and read all attributes.
System: Add CA
Add a new lightweight CA.
System: Delete CA
Delete an existing lightweight CA.
System: Modify CA
Modify the name or description of lightweight CAs.

Key replication

Key replication will be handled by Dogtag's ExternalProcessKeyRetriever (part of Dogtag), which will be configured to execute a Python script (part of FreeIPA) that will retrieve the required key and certificate through Custodia.

This work requires minor changes to FreeIPA's CustodiaClient implementation to generalise it and make it usable from arbitrary Python programs.

Authenticating to Custodia

Authenticating to Custodia involves both Kerberos (i.e. the client must have Kerberos credentials) and Custodia-specific signing keys, the public parts of which are published in LDAP as ipaPublicKeyObject objects and associated with client principal through the memberPrincipal attribute.

For replica promotion, the Custodia client runs as root and uses the host keytab at /etc/krb5.keytab, and Custodia keys stored at /etc/ipa/custodia/server.keys.

pkiuser does not have read access to either of these locations, so a new service principal shall be created for each Dogtag CA instance for the purpose of authenticating to Custodia and retrieving lightweight CA private keys. Its principal name shall be dogtag/<hostname>@REALM. Its keytab and Custodia keys shall be stored with ownership pkiuser:pkiuser and mode 0600 at /etc/pki/pki-tomcat/dogtag.keytab and /etc/pki/pki-tomcat/dogtag.keys respectively.

Custodia store

The existing PKCS #12 Custodia store cannot be used for transporting lightweight CA signing keys, because if the Custodia client imports the keys to the destination NSSDB, Dogtag cannot observe them unless restarted, and Dogtag cannot unpack the PKCS #12 file because the bare private key would then be resident in the Dogtag process' memory, which is unacceptable from a security standpoint. The solution is transport wrapped keys with the IPA CA's public key, and Dogtag shall unwrap them direct into its NSSDB using the IPA CA's private signing key.

A new Custodia store shall be implemented that wraps requested keys in this manner. Its relative path shall be ca_wrapped (cf. ca for the existing mechanism, which shall continue to be used for replica promotion).

Renewal

A mechanism must be provided to renew lightweight CA certificates. A Dogtag REST API shall be provided for renewal of the certificate. When and how renewal occurs, possible approaches include:

  1. No automatic renewal is performed. Provide the ipa ca-renew command to invoke the REST API and renew the sub-CA certificate. Renewal need not be performed on the renewal master.

    Implementation of an ipa ca-renew command is compatible with the remaining options; it would allowing a privileged user to force renewal of a certificate regardless of the prevailing auto-renewal mechanism (if any).

  2. Implement a thread in Dogtag that renews lightweight CA certificates as the existing certificates approach expiry. Only the renewal master would execute this thread.

    Automatic renewal could be enabled on a per-CA basis.

    The advantage of this approach is that the behaviour has no dependency on other components; it can be implemented entirely within Dogtag and can be used in standalone Dogtag deployments.

    Disadvantages and caveats of this approach are:

    • New code for tracking certificate expiry must be written, duplicating functionality that already exists in Certmonger.
    • The renewal thread must run on only one Dogtag instance (in FreeIPA terms: the renewal master). There is precedent with CRL generation; ipa-csreplica-manager would be enhanced to manage lightweight CA renewal configuration and an upgrade script would be needed to add the required Dogtag configuration on the renewal master.
  3. Track each lightweight CA certificate in Certmonger on the renewal master, and implement a renewal helper for lightweight CAs.

    In this scenario, lightweight CA creation must always be performed by the renewal master, which will establish tracking, and promoting a CA replica to renewal master shall involve tracking all FreeIPA-managed lightweight CA certificates.

    The advantage of this approach is the reuse of existing machinery in Certmonger for monitoring certificates and triggering renewal when needed.

    Disadvantages of this approach are:

    • Proliferation of Certmonger tracking requests; one for each FreeIPA-managed lightweight CA.
    • Either lightweight CA creation is restricted to the renewal master, or the renewal master must observe the creation of new lightweight CAs and start tracking their certificate.
    • Development of new Certmonger renewal helpers solely for lightweight CA renewal.

Installation

Set up Dogtag key replication

The CA installation process shall perform the following new steps:

  • Create the dogtag/$HOSTNAME service principal
  • Create Custodia keys for the principal and store them at the location declared above.
  • Retrieve the keytab for the principal to the location declared above.
  • Configure Dogtag to use the ExternalProcessKeyRetriever with a Python helper script to do the work of key retrieval. (This is configured in Dogtag's CS.cfg).

Default CAs

ipa-server-install need not initially create any sub-CAs, but see the "Default sub-CAs" use case for a suggested future direction.

A CA object for the IPA CA will automatically be created, with cn=ipa and description=IPA CA.

Renaming of the IPA CA shall not be permitted.

Implementation

The initial implementation will deliver the ca plugin which will provide for the creation and management of sub-CAs. The caacl plugin will be enhanced with the ability to choose the CAs to which each CA ACL applies.

Future work (#5011) will implement GSSAPI authentication and ACL enforcement in Dogtag and remove ACL enforcement from FreeIPA. The FreeIPA framework will use S4U2Proxy to obtain a ticket for Dogtag on behalf of the bind principal, and the RA Agent priviliges will be dropped.

Dogtag signing key retrieval

To avoid reimplementing a Custodia client in Java (a substantial effort), we configure Dogtag's ExternalProcessKeyRetriever to execute a Python script that reuses the existing FreeIPA CustodiaClient class. The script is part of FreeIPA's codebase and is installed as /usr/libexec/ipa/ipa-pki-retrieve-key.

Feature Management

UI

The web UI must be enhanced to allow the user to indicate which CA a certificate request should be directed to, and to indicate the CA of any existing certificate (ideally, a brief representation the entire certification path).

It will be necessary to support multiple certificates per-principal, issued from different CAs.

The web UI for retrieving certificates must be extended to include the ability to download a chained certificate.

CLI

CLI commands for creating and adminstering lightweight CAs will be created, with appropriate ACIs for authorization.

CLI commands that retrieve certificates will be enhanced to add the capability to retrieve certificate chains from the root to the end-entity certificate.

New commands

ipa ca-find

Search for lightweight CAs.

ipa ca-show <NAME>

Show lightweight CA details.

ipa ca-add <NAME>

Create a new sub-CA, a direct subordinate of the top-level CA. (Future work could allow nested sub-CAs).

name
Name of new CA (FreeIPA object only; value is not known to or used by Dogtag).
--description <STR>
Optional description.
--subject <DN>
Subject DN for new CA.

This command first creates the FreeIPA CA object (to ensure that the user has permission to do so), then creates the CA in Dogtag. The Authority ID returned from Dogtag is then saved. If creation in Dogtag fails, the newly-added object gets deleted.

See also the discussion above about public key parameters and validity. Additional CA creation parameters in the Dogtag API may (eventually) be reflected as additional option for this command.

ipa ca-del <NAME>

Delete the given certificate authority; both the FreeIPA object and the Dogtag lightweight CA.

Non-expired certificates of deleted CAs shall be revoked. This behaviour shall be implemented in Dogtag as part of the CA deletion method; no extra behaviour is needed in the IPA framework.

Note: Dogtag has not yet implemented revocation on lightweight CA deletion. The associated ticket is https://fedorahosted.org/pki/ticket/1638. Until it is implemented, CA certificate revocation can be performed as an additional manual step, using existing commands.

Note: Dogtag prohibits the deletion of non-leaf CAs.

ipa caacl-add-ca NAME

Add CA(s) to the CA ACL.

--ca=STR
CA to add.
ipa caacl-remove-ca NAME

Add CA(s) to the CA ACL.

--ca=STR
CA to remove.

Enhanced commands

ipa caacl-add

Added option:

--cacat=['all']
CA category. Mutually exclusive with CA members added via the caacl-add-ca command.
ipa caacl-mod NAME

Added option:

--cacat=['all']
CA category. Mutually exclusive with CA members added via the caacl-add-ca command.
ipa caacl-find

Added option:

--cacat=['all']
Search for CA ACLs with the given CA category.
ipa cert-request

New options:

--ca NAME
Specify the CA to which to direct the request. Optional; default to the top-level CA.
--chain
Instead of just the newly-issued leaf certificate, retrieve the certificate chain ending in the new certificate.

CA ACL enforcement shall be enhanced to take CAs into account. For backwards compatibility with CA ACLs defined previously, CA ACLs that do not have a CA category and have no CAs shall behave as though the IPA CA alone was specified.

ipa cert-find

The ipa cert-find command shall allow searching by issuer, via the following new arguments.

--issuer <DN>
Specify the issuer DN.
--ca <NAME>
Specify a FreeIPA CA name. The behaviour is the same as if the subject DN of the named CA had been specified via --issuer.

If both --issuer and --ca are given and the two DNs are not equal, the result of the search will be empty.

ipa cert-show

The ipa cert-show command shall have new options for specifying the issuer of the cert to show (in addition to the existing serial number argument), and for retrieving the CA chain ending with the specified certificate.

--ca <NAME>
Specify the issuer of the certificate. Defaults to the IPA CA. If there is no certificate with the specified serial number issued by the specified CA, the result is not found.
--chain
Request the certificate chain (when saving via --out <file>, PEM format is used; this is the format used for the end-entity certificate). By default, the leaf certificate is returned in PEM format.

Certmonger

For service administration use cases, certificates will be requested via certmonger, in accordance with the existing use pattern where ipa-getcert is used to request, monitor and renew certificates.

Indicating the target CA

Certmonger will need to be told which FreeIPA CA to use. (Note that this is different from Certmonger's "CA" concept; the IPA Certmonger CA will be used regardless of which FreeIPA CA is to be used).

To support this use case, the template-issuer property shall be added, and the -X / --issuer command line option shall be added to getcert request and related commands.

If set, the template-issuer value shall be propagated to submission helpers in the CERTMONGER_CA_ISSUER environment variable.

The FreeIPA submission helper shall, if the CERTMONGER_CA_ISSUER environment variable is set, set the ca argument of the cert-request method accordingly; otherwise, the ca argument shall be omitted.

Certificate chain retreival

There are numerous certificate chain formats; common formats will be supported, and an option will be used to select the desired format. For uncommon formats, administrators will need to retrieve the chain in one of the supported formats and manually compose what they need.

Common certificate chain formats:

  • PEM (sequence of PEM-encoded certificates)
  • PKCS #7 (certificate chain object)
  • PKCS #12

Apache and nginx expect a sequence of PEM-encoded certificates, so PEM is a baseline requirement.

Configuration

FreeIPA must be deployed with the Dogtag RA in order to use these features. No other configuration is required.

Upgrade

As part of the upgrade process:

  • Dogtag key replication shall be configured using the steps described at Set up Dogtag key replication_.
  • The schema (including Dogtag schema) shall be updated.
  • The ipa CA object shall be created (see Default CAs_).

How to Use

Scenario: add a sub-CA that will be used to issue user smart cards. A profile for this purpose called userSmartCard is assumed to exist.

List lightweight CAs:

% ipa ca-find
------------
1 CA matched
------------
  Name: ipa
  Description: IPA CA
  Authority ID: d3e62e89-df27-4a89-bce4-e721042be730
  Subject DN: CN=Certificate Authority,O=IPA.LOCAL 201606201330
  Issuer DN: CN=Certificate Authority,O=IPA.LOCAL 201606201330
----------------------------
Number of entries returned 1
----------------------------

Add a new lightweight CA called sc:

% ipa ca-add sc --subject "CN=Smart Card CA, O=IPA.LOCAL" --desc "Smart Card CA"
---------------
Created CA "sc"
---------------
  Name: sc
  Description: Smart Card CA
  Authority ID: 660ad30b-7be4-4909-aa2c-2c7d874c84fd
  Subject DN: CN=Smart Card CA,O=IPA.LOCAL
  Issuer DN: CN=Certificate Authority,O=IPA.LOCAL 201606201330

Add a CA ACL called user-sc-userSmartCard and through it associate all users, the sc CA, and userSmartCard profile. users:

% ipa caacl-add user-sc-userSmartCard --usercat=all
------------------------------------
Added CA ACL "user-sc-userSmartCard"
------------------------------------
  ACL name: user-sc-userSmartCard
  Enabled: TRUE
  User category: all

% ipa caacl-add-ca user-sc-userSmartCard --ca sc
  ACL name: user-sc-userSmartCard
  Enabled: TRUE
  User category: all
  CAs: sc
-------------------------
Number of members added 1
-------------------------

% ipa caacl-add-profile user-sc-userSmartCard --certprofile userSmartCard
  ACL name: user-sc-userSmartCard
  Enabled: TRUE
  User category: all
  CAs: sc
  Profiles: userSmartCard
-------------------------
Number of members added 1
-------------------------

Now, as a user (alice), assuming you already have a CSR for the key in your smart card, request the certificate, specifying the sc CA:

% ipa cert-request --principal alice --ca sc /path/to/csr.req
  Certificate: MIIDmDCCAoCgAwIBAgIBQDANBgkqhkiG9w0BA...
  Subject: CN=alice,O=IPA.LOCAL
  Issuer: CN=Smart Card CA,O=IPA.LOCAL
  Not Before: Fri Jul 15 05:57:04 2016 UTC
  Not After: Mon Jul 16 05:57:04 2018 UTC
  Fingerprint (MD5): 6f:67:ab:4e:0c:3d:37:7e:e6:02:fc:bb:5d:fe:aa:88
  Fingerprint (SHA1): 0d:52:a7:c4:e1:b9:33:56:0e:94:8e:24:8b:2d:85:6e:9d:26:e6:aa
  Serial number: 64
  Serial number (hex): 0x40

Test Plan

Sub-CAs V4.4 test plan

Dependencies

References